Thinking is a complex procedure which is important in the current decision-making world. Intelligent systems are helping humans with this thinking process to better achieve specific goals (Binnig, Baatz, Klenk & Schmidt, 2002). The help of these systems is called “artificial intelligence,” which in computer science is defined as any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. In recent years, organizations have started using artificial intelligence within their systems, which have become a viable alternative to their traditional systems (Froese & Ziemke, 2008, p. 466). Artificial intelligence technology is improving constantly, as scientists become more interested in making systems innovative. The improvement of artificial intelligence is a matter of concern to some, because artificial intelligence could take over human intelligence. However, artificial intelligence provides advantages in solving problems and reaching decisions (Chowdhury & Sadek, 2012). It provides much more permanency, has proven to be more reliable, and will minimize costs within organizations. Therefore, it addresses issues of uncertainty and speed in solving problems and reaching decisions (Chowdhury & Sadek, 2012). Because the technology of artificial intelligence must be managed by humans, it will lead to the creation of jobs (Darrel, 2015). Therefore, artificial intelligence will not completely take over human operations.
How will artificial intelligence improve humanity in their daily life?
Current and future perspectives
In its current stage of development, artificial intelligence has the ability to imitate human intelligence, perform thinking and learning tasks, solve problems, and make certain decisions (Shabbir & Anwer, 2018). These features provide increased permanency, reliability, and cost-effectiveness and also address issues relating to uncertainty and speed (Chowdhury & Sadek, 2012). Today’s artificial intelligence is progressing rapidly because of the improvement of high-performance capabilities. However, the current capabilities of artificial intelligence are still under debate because of a lack of accuracy. Humans are becoming increasingly dependent upon this technology, because artificial intelligence is considerably increasing its human-like characteristics and start performing narrower and cognitive tasks (Shabbir & Anwer, 2018). Due to artificial intelligence, the following technologies have been created or improved: robotic vehicles, speech recognition technology, autonomous planning and scheduling, games, spam fighting, logistics planning, robotics, and machine translations (Russell and Norvig, 2016, p. 28-30).
The prospects for future improvements in artificial intelligence have led to concerns that it will eventually supersede human intelligence (Chowdhury & Sadek, 2012). Artificial intelligence is designed to make human life easier, but there is still significant debate about whether artificial intelligence in fact improves daily life for humanity. Many organizations are exploring the benefits of artificial intelligence in its current state (Shabbir & Anwer, 2018). Because of technology, organizations will be more active in the development of various artificial intelligence strategies (Froese & Ziemke, 2008, p. 466). In the coming decades, artificial intelligence will achieve improvements in speech, voice, video conferencing, and face recognition. Furthermore, it will assist in providing personal assistance and fully automated systems, which will aid in monitoring and surveillance, performing heavy workloads, and many others tasks (Shabbir & Anwer, 2018).
Concerns about AI
There has been significant debate regarding the risks posed to humanity by artificial intelligence. There are concerns about artificial intelligence taking control of our lives to such an extent that it proves detrimental to humanity (Shabbir & Anwer, 2018). According to an RBC Global Asset Management Study, the average costs of building robots with artificial intelligence have fallen, and the rate of production of these robots is growing every year. The current technology is such that it already represents a viable alternative to human labor in performing certain tasks. Most artificial intelligence systems have the ability to learn, which leads to an improvement over human performance (Shabbir & Anwer, 2018). Systems based on artificial intelligence are taking the place of humans in such areas as finance, transportation, aviation, healthcare, manufacturing, energy development, and telecommunications (Darrel, 2015, p. 4). These systems help humans to make decisions, anticipate and deal with difficulties on a human level of expertise (Darrel, 2015, p.4).
The rapid increase in the technology has had a substantial impact on the workforce. Firms have discovered that artificial intelligence can replace humans and lead to improved accuracy, productivity, and efficiency in daily operations. These benefits have led many organizations to achieve their economic goals with a decreasing number of employees (Darrel, 2015, p. 6-10). A recent study on artificial intelligence presents the potential effects on the efficiency of organizations. The technology will improve the area of data science by almost 9.6%, business intelligence by 7.8%, healthcare by 6.3%, computer vision by 5.6%, defense and aviation systems by 5.3%, and speech recognition by 5.3% (Shabbir & Anwer, 2018, p. 8). Former U.S. Treasury Secretary Lawrence Summers takes a pessimistic view of the current effect of artificial intelligence on employment (Darrell, 2015, p. 9). If the current trend continues, many jobs will be taken over by the technology of artificial intelligence.
Jobs will be replaced
This claim that many jobs will be taken over by the technology of artificial intelligence is disputed by many economists who predict that the jobs that will be lost to this technology will be replaced by new ones (Darrel, 2015, p. 6-10). The work performed by artificial intelligence will lead to new jobs in analyzing big data, mining information, and managing data share networks. In future decades work will be transformed, but humans will still be needed to manage the digital world (Darrel, 2015, p. 6-10). According to a new report from the World Economic Forum (WEF), artificial intelligence will create 133 million new jobs and cause 75 million jobs to be displaced in 2022. If this expectation proves accurate, in the next few years artificial intelligence will create 58 million net new jobs (Forbes, 2018). What is more, the support of artificial intelligence will help humans anticipate problems and deal with difficulties as they come up. Humans will still be necessary in a number of areas, because the supplementation of human skills will enhance the productivity achieved through artificial intelligence (Darrel, 2015, p. 6-10).
The advantages of AI
Despite the fact that artificial Intelligence could take over certain human jobs, it has several advantages for human as organizations as well. First of all, the implementation of artificial intelligence within systems will provide much more permanency within organizations. Artificial intelligence applications prevent information, and therefore knowledge, from being lost (Chowdhury & Sadek, 2012). These applications can provide vigorous measures with which to monitor, identify, and protect data. In addition, artificial intelligence has the ability to learn from real-world successes and failures. This feature can be used to guarantee the longevity, reliability, and relevance of a system (Chowdhury & Sadek, 2012).
Furthermore, artificial intelligence has proven to be more reliable than traditional applications. Artificial intelligence technology has the ability to simulate human intelligence in a reasoning process (Chowdhury & Sadek, 2012). Current developments have shown an increased effectiveness in performing narrow and cognitive tasks (Shabbir & Anwer, 2018). Systems with complex artificial intelligence solutions perform better than humans in these tasks (Darrel, 2015, p.4). When certain systems or programs with artificial intelligence are programmed correctly, it can be assumed that the quality of task-performance will be improved and the reliability of specific tasks will be increased. Reliability is an important factor in their daily business of many organizations (Chowdhury & Sadek, 2012). Especially when there are important decisions to be made, it is necessary that the information be correct and accurate. According to Deloitte (2019), the accuracy of data transfer will be improved and 4000 hours of manual labor time will be saved due to artificial intelligence solutions.
In addition to the fact that artificial intelligence has been proven to provide more permanency and more reliability, it will also minimize costs and maximize profits. A major cost which can be minimized is that associated with labor. With the support of artificial intelligence, many labor tasks could be taken over due to automation. Currently, organizations are making more profit with a decreasing number of employees (Darrel, 2015, p. 6). Technology has the advantage of significantly reducing the workforce in the decision-making process, and therefore of leading to a reduction in costs (Chowdhury & Sadek, 2012). In an article in Forbes, Wacker (2017) writes that as a result of artificial intelligence, certain types of labor will decrease. Wacker (2017) divides jobs into three sectors: the stable or growing areas, the transitional areas, and the declining areas. The last two areas are more likely to decrease in number. All areas will continue to exist, but with fewer employees in each. With the minimization of costs, profitability increases. A study by Accenture (2017) reveals that by 2035 economic growth will double, due to artificial intelligence boosting the productivity of labor by 40%.
The uncertainty affecting today’s decisions could be hedged by artificial intelligence. Some applications of artificial intelligence have the capability to establish a direct mathematical relationship between a cause and effect for qualitative as well as quantitative data (Chowdhury & Sadek, 2012). Applications of artificial intelligence result in faster, smarter, and more environmentally friendly processes, such as reliable forecasting, inventory accuracy, and optimization of schedules (Shabbir & Anwer, 2018). In addition to having the capacity to deal with uncertainty, artificial intelligence also has the power to improve speed. During the computational time of the algorithm of artificial intelligence, the data is screened and processed. Artificial intelligence will make faster decisions and support its solutions to complex problems (Chowdhury & Sadek, 2012). This capability leads to time-savings for humans and for companies as well. According to Deloitte (2019), artificial intelligence dramatically reduces decision time from 96 hours to 0 hours. Because of this, consumer satisfaction will increase, while employees can be turned to other, more valuable tasks.
Recently, artificial intelligence has been depicted as a representation of a human brain. However, within a human brain there are approximately 100 trillion electrically conducting cells or neurons, a system that cannot be replicated by artificial intelligence (Shabbir & Anwer, 2018). It is not about the imitation of the human brain by artificial intelligence, but rather about the combination of the human brain and the technology. According to Accenture (2017), artificial intelligence will drive business value by combining human creativity and labor with improvements in processes and data with the power and speed of artificial intelligence solutions. The opportunity to create business value will only be possible if organizations focus on three areas: the transformation of relationships between humans and machines, the reimagining of business models and processes, and the unlocking of the trapped value of data (Accenture, 2017). These three areas could lead to the reduction of costs, the improvement of efficiencies, the augmentation of highly skilled professionals, and innovations in services and solutions, and therefore to a better customer experience (Accenture, 2017).
Since artificial intelligence has an increasing ability to imitate human intelligence, perform thinking and learning tasks, solve problems, and make decisions, there are concerns about artificial intelligence taking over human jobs and jobs being lost. The quality of the capability of artificial intelligence is still under debate. Many economists dispute the claim that artificial intelligence will take over human jobs, arguing that human jobs will be transformed, but humans will still be necessary to manage this digitization. In fact, research has shown that artificial intelligence will create millions of new jobs. As artificial intelligence can be seen to be substantial to human intelligence, it has been proven to provide advantages for human as organizations as well. The implementation of artificial intelligence will increase the permanency and reliability of certain operations, minimize costs, maximize profits, and increase business value through its combination with human intelligence. In conclusion, there are serious predictions that artificial intelligence is going to supersede humans in particular jobs, but also that it will create even more new ones. It has been shown that if the quality continues to develop, artificial intelligence will offer many advantages to human organizations now and in the future.
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